Sterilize 3 pint/500 ml mason jars and their lids (See Cook's Notes.)
Place a large pot onto the stove top and add the vinegar, sugar, ginger, cloves, coriander, cumin, fennel, fenugreek, mustard seeds, smoked paprika, peppercorns, salt, cardamom and garlic. Turn the heat to medium and bring to a boil. Boil until the sugar has dissolved, about 3 minutes. Add the cauliflower, carrots, chilies and onion, and bring back to a boil. Reduce the heat to medium and let simmer for 5 minutes.
Carefully spoon the vegetables evenly into the sterilized jars, sliding a chili into each jar, and then top with the hot vinegar. Place the lids firmly in place and leave on a counter top to cool completely. Store the jars in the fridge for up to 1 month.
Cook's Notes: Properly-handled sterilized equipment will keep canned foods in good condition for years. Sterilizing jars is the first step of preserving foods.
Jars should be made from glass and free of any chips or cracks. Preserving or canning jars are topped with a glass, plastic, or metal lid, which has a rubber seal. Two piece lids are best for canning, as they vacuum seal when processed.
To sterilize jars, before filling with jams, pickles, or preserves, wash jars and lids with hot, soapy water. Rinse well and arrange jars and lids open sides up, without touching, on a tray. Boil the jars and lids in a large saucepan, covered with water, for 15 minutes.
Use tongs when handling the hot sterilized jars, to move them from boiling water. Be sure the tongs are sterilized too, by dipping the ends in boiling water for a few minutes.
As a rule, hot preserves go into hot jars and cold preserves go into cold jars. All items used in the process of making jams, jellies, and preserves must be clean. This includes any towels used, and especially your hands.
After the jars are sterilized, you can preserve the food. It is important to follow any canning and processing instructions included in the recipe and refer to USDA guidelines about the sterilization of canned products.