Bring a large pot of salted water to a boil over high heat. Add the linguine
and cook until it is al dente
, stirring frequently, about 8 minutes. Drain
, reserving 1 cup of the cooking liquid.
Immediately toss the hot pasta in a large bowl with the butter
to coat. While tossing the linguine, gradually sprinkle the cheese
, pepper, and enough of the reserved cooking liquid evenly over the linguine to moisten. Add the arugula and toss to combine. Season the pasta
, to taste, with salt. Divide the pasta among 6 plates and serve.