For the chile jam: Using a sharp paring knife, remove the stems from all of the chiles. Cut 9 of the chiles down the center lengthwise and remove the seeds. This amount of chiles will give you a very spicy jam. If you prefer a milder jam, remove the seeds from all of the chiles.
Toast the chilies in a large saute pan over medium heat until their skins darken slightly but are still mostly red in color and become slightly brittle, for 3 to 4 minutes. Transfer the chiles to a large plate.
Add the vegetable oil and garlic to the same pan and cook until the garlic is just starting to brown around the edges, for 1 to 2 minutes. Using a slotted spoon, transfer the garlic to the plate with the chiles. Add the shallots and cook until lightly browned around the edges and slightly crispy, for 3 to 4 minutes. Transfer the shallots to the same plate with a slotted spoon. Add the dried shrimp and cook until lightly browned and slightly crispy, for 2 to 3 minutes. Transfer the dried shrimp to the same plate with a slotted spoon. Turn off the heat, reserving the pan and oil.
In a food processor, grind the chiles, garlic, shallots, dried shrimp, fish sauce, tamarind, palm sugar, shrimp paste, galangal and 1/4 cup water to a paste that still has some texture.
Return the same pan to medium-low heat and add the chile paste to the reserved oil. Cook the paste for 20 to 25 minutes, stirring occasionally, until the paste has turned a deep red color and the mixture has reduced slightly. Turn off the heat and set aside to cool.
For the pork chops: Preheat the oven to 375 degrees F.
Heat the vegetable oil over high heat in a large saute pan. Sprinkle the pork chops liberally with kosher salt. Add the pork chops to the pan and brown on each side for 3 to 4 minutes. Turn the heat off and transfer the pork chops to a baking sheet. Roast in the oven until the pork reaches an internal temperature of 135 to 140 degrees F, for 4 to 6 minutes. Transfer the pork chops to a plate and allow to rest for 5 minutes.
While the pork chops are resting, make a pan sauce with the chile jam. Pour out any oil that is left in the pork pan. Pour the chicken stock into the pan and bring to a boil over medium-high heat, scraping up any pork remnants that were left at the bottom of the pan with a wooden spoon or spatula. Reduce by half, for 3 to 4 minutes. Add 1/4 cup of the chile jam and stir to combine. Reduce the heat to medium and cook for another 2 to 3 minutes.
Serve the pork chops topped with the pan sauce. Thai sticky rice and steamed snow peas would make nice accompaniments to this dish.
Cook's Notes: This recipe will leave you with leftover chile jam. The jam will keep in an air-tight container in the refrigerator for 3 to 4 weeks. It is great added to stir-fries or as an accompaniment to any protein such as beef or chicken.
Galangal can be found at Asian markets; however, you may substitute an equal amount of fresh ginger if you cannot find it fresh.