Preheat the oven to 400 degrees F. Toast the coriander and yellow mustard seeds in a medium skillet over medium heat, stirring occasionally, until fragrant and starting to brown slightly, 3 to 5 minutes. Transfer to a small bowl to cool.
Add the cooled seeds, sugar, paprika, 1 teaspoon salt, garlic and cloves to a spice grinder and grind to the texture of dry sand. Transfer to a small bowl and stir in the pepper.
Place 1/4 cup of the spice blend in a shallow bowl. (Reserve the remaining spice blend for another use. See Cook's Note below.) Season the chicken breasts liberally on both sides with kosher salt and dredge in the spice blend.
Heat the oil in a large skillet over medium-high heat. Add the chicken breasts and cook until browned on the bottom, 1 to 2 minutes, then flip with tongs. Place the skillet in the oven and bake until the chicken is browned and cooked through (registers 165 degrees F on a meat thermometer), about 10 minutes.
The leftover spice blend will keep in an airtight container at room temperature in a dry place away from sunlight for up to 3 months. Try it sprinkled on burger patties before cooking, warm buttered popcorn or flatbread; or stir it into sour cream and mayonnaise as a dip.
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