Preheat oven to 350 degrees F.
Bring a large pot of water to boil and season generously with salt. Add the pasta and cook until al dente (just tender) according to package instructions. Drain in a colander without rinsing, and return pasta to the pot.
While the noodles are still warm, add the Gouda, cheddar, and American cheese and stir until the cheese starts to melt. Add the heavy cream and season generously with salt and pepper. Pour the noodle mixture into a greased 8- by 11-inch baking dish (or one of a similar size).
Melt the butter and toss with the panko crumbs, and sprinkle mixture over the top. Cover the dish with aluminum foil and bake for 30 minutes. Remove foil and cook uncovered for an additional 15 minutes. Finish off under the broiler if you want to brown the topping just a bit more. Remove macaroni and cheese from the oven and cool for 5 to 10 minutes before serving.