Using a paring knife, remove the outer leaves of the artichokes and trim down to the chokes. Use a vegetable peeler to remove the woody outermost layer of the stems. Cut off the top 1/2 inch of the artichokes. Slice lengthwise 1/4 inch thick.
Arrange the arugula on a serving platter. Top with the artichoke slices and shaved Parmesan. Squeeze on the lemon juice and drizzle with olive oil. Season with salt and pepper.