Rub the inside of a large wooden bowl with the garlic cloves. Remove the garlic cloves, and finely chop. Add the egg yolks, remaining garlic, anchovies and mustard to the bowl. Whisk until all of the ingredients are incorporated. Whisk in the lemon juice. Slowly drizzle in the olive oil, while whisking constantly. Whisk until all of the ingredients are incorporated. Season the dressing with salt and pepper. Gently tear the lettuce into bit-size portions and add to the salad bowl. Using a hand-held grater, grate the cheese into the bowl. Add the croutons. Toss the salad completely and reseason if necessary. Serve the salad on cold salad plates.
Consumption of raw or undercooked eggs, shellfish and meat may increase the risk of foodborne illness.